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j28                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                  CHAP.
notice, and we come to Sad, who crushed the accursed
Ghuzz and annexed the Kerman province in A.H. 600
A short time after this event the unhappy province was
invaded by an army from Khiva, which laid siege to the
capital without effect. In the end terms were arranged,
and the Khivans remained in possession* Sad also made
a successful raid on Isfahan. He became tributary to
Ala-u-Din, whose army he met near Rei when the Shah
of Khwarazm was marching towards Baghdad. The
Atabeg, with only seven hundred men, promptly attacked
and defeated a large body of Khivan troops; but he fell
off his horse and was taken prisoner. He excused him-
self for his mad act by stating that he was not aware that
the army was that of Khiva, and, having agreed to pay
an annual tribute to Khwarazm and to give his daughter
to Jalal-u-Din, the heir-apparent, he was dismissed with
honour. In A.H. 623 (1226) Sad was succeeded by
Abubekr, famous as the patron of the poet Sadi, who had
taken his title from Sad's name. Abubekr showed much
foresight in conciliating Chengiz Khan, by which act of
policy he maintained his own dynasty and saved Fans
from the appalling calamities that befell other parts of
These Atabegs of Pars were the most famous, but
there was also a dynasty of Atabegs of Azerbaijan, which
ruled from A.H. 531 (1136) to A.H. 622 (1225). This
family, however, never attained to more than local
importance. A Luristan dynasty was also established by
means of a force sent from Fars, and held sway from A.H,
543 (U48) to A.H. 740 (1329). Its reigning prince
made terms with the Mongols, and, as will be seen in
Chapter LVIL, Abaga owed his life to the courage of a
member of the family.
The End of a Great Period.—In history it is not always
easy to discover the true dividing lines, but the Mongol
invasion which swept across Asia is unmistakable, for it
inflicted a blow from which Moslem civilization never
entirely recovered. Not only were entire populations
blotted out of existence, but the cataclysm culminated in